Science & Safety

Kinetiq is supported by over a dozen safety and efficacy human clinical trials, a comprehensive safety dossier, and expert and independent 3rd party safety evaluations. In addition, the first generation form of Kinetiq has been sold in consumer products for over 16 years without a single confirmed adverse event.

60% of regular consumers of stimulant-containing energy products are concerned about the health effects of stimulants.

60% of regular consumers of energy products prefer a stimulant-free product.

Over 90% of the same consumers would be interested in using products containing a natural, stimulant-free ingredient like Kinetiq.

88% are “likely to” or “definitely would switch” from an energy product brand containing known stimulants to one without stimulants, like Kinetiq.

2015 national survey of US energy product consumers completed by 3rd party research company.


Mechanism of Action

Kinetiq exerts its beneficial effects through multiple biochemical mechanisms. It helps support weight management due to the presence of p-synephrine, which binds to β-3 adrenergic receptors, resulting in an increase in the body’s ability to break down fats. Because p-synephrine exhibits little or no binding to α-1, α-2, β-1, and β-2 adrenergic receptors, cardiovascular effects as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure are not experienced at commonly used doses, thus demonstrating that Kinetiq does not act as a stimulant.

Kinetiq and its component p-synephrine also enhances the body’s utilization of carbohydrates by producing more energy in the form of ATP. The resulting increase in energy expenditure produced by Kinetiq occurs in conjunction with an increase in the respiratory quotient, a measure of carbon dioxide produced relative to oxygen consumed.

Clinical Studies & Safety Data

Kinetiq citrus aurantium extract is supported by over a dozen safety and efficacy human clinical trials, which effectively demonstrate that the ingredient safely enhances energy and alertness, helps increase thermogenesis, and promotes healthy weight management with diet and exercise. And importantly, Kinetiq does not act as a stimulant, meaning it delivers powerful results without the jitters or effects associated with stimulants like ephedra, taurine, and caffeine.  ​​


A recent human clinical study, published in 2015, was conducted at the College of New Jersey and involved male subjects ages 18-22 using Kinetiq while following an intense weight training protocol. The study demonstrated that stimulant free Kinetiq enhances sports and resistance training performance by helping to increase mean power, velocity, max number of repetitions, and volume load.



Kinetiq citrus aurantium extract was combined with 2 citrus bioflavonoids, naringin and hesperidin, naturally occurring in the bitter orange fruit. The study showed that the combination significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 183kcal over placebo, indicating a powerful thermogenic effect. This dramatic result is the basis for a new patent, and this Patented Thermogenic Combination is now available as an ingredient.


Published Research and Third-Party Evaluations

  1. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG. 2011. The safety of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. HerbalGram 89: 34-39.
  2. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. 2011. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytother. Res. 25: 1421-1428.
  3. Stohs SJ, Shara M. 2013. A review of the safety and efficacy of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and its primary protoalkaloid, p-synephrine, in weight management. In Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Ed. Bagchi D, Preuss, HG, editors. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2013: Chapter 37, pp 535-554.
  4. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. 2012. A review of the human clinical studies of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int. J. Med. Sci. 9: 527-538.
  5. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG. 2011. Stereochemical and pharmacological differences between naturally occurring p-synephrine and synthetic p-synephrine. J. Funct. Foods, Vol. 2011. 9 pages.
  6. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. 2011. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. Vol. 2011: 1-9.
  7. Kaats GR, Miller H, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ. 2013. A 60 day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. Food Chem. Toxicol. 55: 358-362.
  8. Marles R. 2011. Synephrine, Octopamine and Caffeine Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Report. Health Canada Natural Health Products Directorate, File No. 172091, May. pp.1-49.
  9. Lynch B. 2013. Review of the safety of p-synephrine and caffeine. Intertek-Cantox Report, April. pp. 1-20.
  10. 10. Stohs SJ, Miller H, Romano F. 2014. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts. J. Diet. Suppl. 11:288-293.
  11. 12. Carpene MA, Testar X, Carpene C. 2014. High doses of synephrine and octopamine activate lipolysis in human adipocytes, indicating that amines from Citrus might influence adiposity. In: Citrus. K. Hayat, Editor. Nova Science Publishers Inc. Chapter 8, pp.141-168.
  12. Gougeon R, Harrigan K, Tremblay JF, Hedrei P, Lamarche M, Morais JA. 2005. Increase in the thermic effect of food in women by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity Res. 13; 1187-1194.
  13. 18. Mulvihill EE, Allister EM, Sutherford BG, Telford DE, Sawyez CG, Edwards JY, Markle JM, Hegele RA, Huff MW. 2009. Naringenin prevents dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein B overproduction, and hyperinsulinemia in LDL receptor-null mice with diet induced insulin resistance. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2198-2210.
  14. 19. Cho KW, Kim YO, Andrade JE, Andrfade JE, Burgess JR, Km YC. 2011. Dietary naringin increases hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α protein expression and decreases plasma triglyceride and adiposity in rats. Eur. J. Nutr. 2011; 50: 81-88.
  15. 20. Kim HK, Jeong TS, Lee MK, Park YB, Choi MS. 2003. Lipid lowering efficacy of hesperetin metabolites in high-cholesterol fed rats. Clin. Chim. Acta 2003; 327: 129-137.
  16. Ratamess NA, Bush JA, Kang J, Kraemer WJ, Stohs SJ, Nocera VG, Leise MD, Diamond KB, Fagenbaum AD. 2015. The effects of supplementation with p-synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine on acute resistances exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12:35.
  17. Mercader J, Wanecq E, Chen J, Carpene C. 2011. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium. J. Physiol. Biochem. 67: 442-452.
  18. Hong NA, Cui ZG, Kang HK, Lee DH, Lee YK, Park DB. 2012. p-Synephrine stimulates glucose consumption via AMPK in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 418: 720-724.
  19. de Oliveira AL, Comar JF, de Sa-Nakanishi AB, Peralta RM, Bracht A. 2014. The action of p-synephrine on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and respiration occurs via both Ca(2+)-mobilization and cAMP production. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 388: 135-147.
  20. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Keith SC, Keith PL, Miller H, Kaats GR. 2011. Effects of Advantra Z (p-synephrine) alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate, and self-reported mood changes. Int. J. Med. Sci. 8: 297-301.
  21. Zheng X, Guo L, Wang D, Deng X. 2014. p-Synephrine: A novel agonist of neuromedin U2 receptor. Biol. Pharmaceut. Bull. 37: 764-770.